We are pleased to announce a recent publication from the SOCAL-BRS project on the basic behavior and responses to simulated military sonar in a Barid’s beaked whale. These data were particularly significant in being the first high-resolution movement and acoustic measurements for any individual of this species. The photo above (Taken under NMFS permit #14534-2; credit A. Douglas) shows the subject described in the feature being tagged. The reference for this paper and abstract are given below. A .pdf copy is available on request from: <firstname.lastname@example.org> or <Brandon.Southall@sea-inc.net>.
Stimpert, A. K., Stacy Lynn DeRuiter, B. L. Southall, D. J. Moretti, E. A. Falcone, J. A. Goldbogen, Ari Friedlaender, G. S. Schorr, and John Calambokidis. “Acoustic and foraging behavior of a Baird’s beaked whale, Berardius bairdii, exposed to simulated sonar.” Scientific reports 4 (2014).
Beaked whales are hypothesized to be particularly sensitive to anthropogenic noise, based on previous
strandings and limited experimental and observational data. However, few species have been studied in
detail. We describe the underwater behavior of a Baird’s beaked whale (Berardius bairdii) from the first
deployment of a multi-sensor acoustic tag on this species. The animal exhibited shallow (23 +/- 15 m max
depth), intermediate (324 +/- 49 m), and deep (1138 +/- 243 m) dives. Echolocation clicks were produced with
a mean inter-click interval of approximately 300 ms and peak frequency of 25 kHz. Two deep dives included
presumed foraging behavior, with echolocation pulsed sounds (presumed prey capture attempts) associated
with increased maneuvering, and sustained inverted swimming during the bottom phase of the dive. A
controlled exposure to simulated mid-frequency active sonar (3.5–4 kHz) was conducted 4 hours after tag
deployment, and within 3 minutes of exposure onset, the tagged whale increased swim speed and body
movement, and continued to show unusual dive behavior for each of its next three dives, one of each type.
These are the first data on the acoustic foraging behavior in this largest beaked whale species, and the first
experimental demonstration of a response to simulated sonar.
After a few rough weather days – hot and windy with high seas – we got a break on our last day for this phase of SOCAL-14. It was nice and calm as we worked back towards our end point near LA and we found a number of different animals feeding on some rich aggregations of krill near the oil rigs in the San Pedro Channel – sea lions, dolphins, birds, fish, and minke, humpback, and blue whales. We managed to get two blue whales in the same group tagged simultaneously and follow them for most of the day tracking their movements, behavior, and calling as well. One of these blue whales (a large female who was the lead animal in this pair shown above – taken under NMFS permit #14534, credit J. Calambokidis). We completed a successful experimental sequence with both whales who continued feeding, although it was halted slightly early when a sea lion swam close enough to the sound source that we had to terminate the experiment because of our permit mitigation requirements. Sea lions especially seem to be quite unaffected by and possibly even attracted to the sound source we use, which is an interesting observation even though they are not the direct subjects. We have an incredibly talented and dedicated group of professionals on this project. We cover a lot of water in sometimes rough seas and work with some of the most challenging animals on earth to study. We have tagged 18 animals of 4 different species with 21 tags of 3 types and conducted 10 complete experimental sequences in SOCAL-14 thusfar. The breadth and amount of new knowledge, publications, and guidance for management decisions regarding the conservation and protection of marine mammals that has come from this project is entirely the result of this remarkable team. Many of them are shown in the photo below and we encourage you to check out more of what many of these folks do outside of the BRS project by linking to some of the websites of all our partners (notably www.cascadiaresearch.org, but see the many other partners listed on www.socal-brs.org and the partner links on the right hand side). We also want to acknowledge the support, cooperation, and willingness to ask hard questions by our sponsors at the U.S. Navy’s Living Marine Resources Program and the Office of Naval Research and our partners in various parts of the Navy. We have a two month hiatus until a final phase of SOCAL-14 in November. Thanks so much to those of you that have and continue to follow the blog and send feedback and questions.
As you may have heard, the (second) hurricane off the Pacific coast earlier this week hit parts of Baja pretty badly. While we aren’t getting any direct effects of that (but thanks for the few emails we have received asking), we are picking up some of the swell from it mixing in with some local swell for confused seas. The bigger issue is that we have just had some very strong offshore winds the last few days. We were really wanting to work offshore this last week of SOCAL-14 phase II but we have gotten progressively knocked backwards and are sitting in a port on the mainland tonight. Even in here at midnight I can hear the wind howling through the harbor and there is a small craft advisory in effect even close to shore. So, it’s been a little rough finding reasonable conditions in which to tag cetaceans. We did manage to tag and follow a fin whale yesterday (see photo below – taken under NMFS permit #14534, credit A. Friedlaender) and run a full experimental sequence as well as prey imaging measurements.
Today we had a very interesting interaction with an unidentified cetacean swimming at quite high speed. Below is a photo of what most of the interaction looked like as the animal was throwing water strongly swimming at over 15 knots. We are still sorting through all the video and photos taken and piecing it together with the observations of our visual team and the tagging boat. From all accounts though, this was likely not one of the more common species we have seen and tagged out here. The current best guess is actually a Longman’s beaked whale (Indopacetus pacificus), but we are still trying to get some more insight into that. We will provide some better pictures and description of this as possible – most of what we saw looked like the below picture in the one interaction we had trying to deploy a tag (on pole in the foreground).
We have two more field days out here and will provide a final update and summary of this segment of our field work by the end of the week. Thanks for the interest and the comments and encouragement received. Again, we really are fine out here with the storm.
It’s been a rough few days on the sea off southern California for the SOCAL-BRS effort. We need relatively calm seas (e.g, <10-15 kt winds and <3-4 ft seas) and if you check out the offshore actual weather and forecasts for the outer waters where we hope to work with beaked whales and other pelagic (open water) species more commonly occur you will see a lot of numbers higher than that. Most of the seas, especially in the afternoons, are looking more like the picture above snapped from the R/V Truth. But we did hear some beaked whales on our acoustic listening array today which was promising. We have another four days in the field and, while the forecast is largely the same this week, we will keep with it and hope to get tags deployed.
Though we had planned on working nearshore today in SOCAL-BRS with some planned refueling and transfers of people and gear, the small craft advisory from large swell and 20+ knot winds in outer water ensured it. Knowing the weather would be poor we got an early start with the objective of getting a baleen whale tagged before the high winds made their way inshore. We worked out from San Pedro near LA and found several blue whales feeding along the shelf break south of Palos Verdes peninsula. This is a very common area for feeding baleen whales, though it overlaps with some of the main shipping lanes on the U.S. west coast. We attached two different acoustic and movement tags (a WHOI DTAG and a Mark-10 TDR – please see the detailed information and summary at www.socal-brs.org for more details on these sensors). Both of these tags are visible in the picture above (taken under NMFS permit #14534-2 by C. Casey) on the whale from today (who is still carrying both tags as of 2300 PDT!). This combination allows us to measure high resolution diving behavior, broadband sound, and GPS position in a complimentary way, which is accompanied by visual focal follow sampling of individual behavior.
After the controlled sound exposure experiment (fortunately) our tagged whale had a close interaction with a large commercial vessel in the shipping lanes in the San Pedro Channel. Below is a photo of the vessel with our tagging and focal follow small boat in the foreground – obviously it is the small boat in this interaction.
The whale came within just a few hundred meters of this vessel and based on the track and where the animal surfaced (about 100 meters on the other side of the track about a minute after it passed) we believe it went directly below it. John Calambokidis of Cascadia Research Collective has been leading some pioneering research and conservation efforts on the serious issues related to whales and the threats posed by ship strikes out here on the west coast. Please go to <www.cascadiaresearch.org> for much more information on these issues and on some of the innovative new technologies and measures being taken to try and understand and mitigate these risks.
Apologies for those of you that have been following the SOCAL-BRS blog for our 2014 field efforts for the few days delay (and thanks for the emails checking in on us!). We have been well offshore working the last three days and out of cell and internet range to get updates posted. We had reasonably good offshore weather at least in the mornings and some of the focal species have been distributed a little further offshore. Despite a few equipment setbacks, we have managed to get a number of tags deployed and two experimental sequences conducted. So far we have managed to tag a blue whale (above) as well as several Risso’s dolphins (both taken under NMFS permit #14534-2, credit A. Friedlaender).
We are working out of LA tomorrow and then doing our mid-trip provisioning and re-fuel tomorrow to gear up for the second week. We will post some additional information and examples of some of the tag record data while inshore with a little better internet access over the next few days. Thanks again for the interest in following our work out here. Please do refer to some of the information we have on the project at <www.socal-brs.org>.
Today marked the start of our second field phase of SOCAL-14. We are fortunate to have two full weeks of field effort to find, follow, tag, and study the behavior of different cetacean species in the beautiful Channel Islands off Southern California. For those of you who are not familiar with the project, it’s goals, and our work to date, please link over to the project website, which is <www.socal-brs.org>. There is a drop-down menu for each of our field campaigns, links to published papers, and for our current field effort a simply worded public summary <http://sea-inc.net/assets/pdf/SOCAL14_summary.pdf>. The overall goal is to safely and carefully study the behavioral responses of specific cetaceans to human sounds, including Navy mid-frequency sonar, to inform predictions of potential impact and mitigation measures to reduce them. As many people have inquired, we are been affected by the current tropical storm spinning off the Pacific coast, but just barely with a little bump of south swell that rolled us a little more than usual today. It rained a little as well which was both a little odd for late summer here and kind of welcome with the drought out here. But neither were any real impediment to efforts closer to the mainland and we found a number of blue whales and a few humpbacks near the Palos Verdes peninsula west of LA. One blue whale was tagged and a full experimental sequence with active imaging of prey fields accomplished as a way of understanding the experimental context for the animal. This archival movement and listening tag (see the above summary for more details) gathered 8.5 hours of high resolution data before, during, and after the experiment today and was retrieved just before a nice sunset. A picture of the whale with Palos Verdes in the background (below: taken under NMFS permit #14534-2, credit J. Calambokidis) shows the gold recording tag attached with suction cups riding on the animal. Tomorrow we aim to push further offshore in search of beaked whales and Risso’s dolphins. Our colleagues on the R/V Baylis (joining us for this phase of the field effort) will be towing listening hydrophones in one of the deep-water basins to the west helping us listen for and locate these clicking toothed cetaceans to attach similar tags. We will try and update this blog daily or as regularly as we have internet access while in the field. For any specific questions about the project, please feel free to contact either the SOCAL-BRS project manager and field lead John Calambokidis <Calambokidis@cascadiaresearch.org> or the project chief scientist <Brandon.Southall@sea-inc.net> and we will respond as we are able.
Please check out a recent story in a local SOCAL newspaper (The Daily Breeze) on the SOCAL-BRS research project.
See the link below as well as the lead-in to the article
Scientists can’t yet definitively say why whales and dolphins strand themselves — or whether human activities are always to blame. But they are closing in on some answers and, in the process, seeing a fuller picture of how marine mammals interpret their environment.
The initial findings of a years-long study of whales that have been tagged in the Southern California Bight (the curved coastline from Point Conception to San Diego) have turned up a few surprises, while also generating new questions about the lives of these massive, but largely mysterious animals.
“We have a mixed message,” said Brandon Southall, a lead biologist on the Southern California Behavioral Response Study (SOCAL-BRS) team trying to understand how whales react to certain noises. “Some of them have responses and some don’t, but it looks like the responses really depend on what the animal is doing.”
Southall and 17 other researchers on the SOCAL-BRS team on Thursday completed a 10-day stint on the ocean five miles out from San Pedro, buzzing around in inflatable motor boats tagging 80-foot-long whales and smaller dolphins.
We’ve come to the end of our first phase (of three or possibly four) for SOCAL-14. This was a bit shorter than typical (10 days) for our research phases using the R/V Truth as a platform. We finished off our field work with an open public presentation and discussion forum on the project hosted today by the Cabrillo Marine Aquarium in San Pedro. They were gracious enough to offer us some significant logistical support and to provide a venue for us to talk with some of the local research, conservation, and education folks working on marine mammal issues in southern California. Above is a photo of a subset of our field team in front of the Aquarium today and below are a few more photos of our talks and demonstrations of field gear and tagging boats.
Overall for the first phase we had good but not great success. We worked in some marginal weather conditions and are seeing some different distributions of animals in a few places, perhaps having something to do with the unusual 70+ degree surface water temperatures we are seeing out here with more tropical fish species showing up. We didn’t tag our highest priority beaked or fin whales and tagged just one Rissos dolphin. But we tagged eight blue whales (like the one shown below with two different tags being applied – taken under NMFS permit #14534-2, credit K. Levek) with four complete CEE sequences (two MFA, two control), one of which had an incidental exposure on a tagged minke whale, which is a first. This is just the start of SOCAL-14 and please stay tuned for more details and updates as we continue our work out here studying behavior in these amazing animals starting back up in a few weeks.
There was a decent weather window for SOCAL-14 to work offshore the last there days. We had workable conditions with acoustic detections and sightings of a few beaked whales, which are our priority species when we are able to work in areas around the Navy range west of San Clemente Island. Unfortunately we weren’t able to tag any beaked whales and there just weren’t many other animals of any species around. Today the offshore weather went downhill and we fell back to Catalina targeting Risso’s dolphins (like the one above; taken under NMFS permit #14534-2, credit A. Friedlaender). There were plenty of animals around but the weather picked up on us before we were able to get tags deployed. Overnight here in Avalon with an early start hoping for either beaked whales or Risso’s dolphins in the morning off the deep waters around this beautiful island.